Its first design was made by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada in 1539 and it was first called Major Square. The square was used over centuries for civil, martial and religious representations; it also hosted a public market, a bull circus and an acrobatic exhibition center. The heads of the Comunero movement, lead by José Antonio Galán, were executed in this square, which has always kept the echo of the Declaration of Independence since July 20, 1810.
Later on, distinguished citizens such as Camilo Torres and Manuel del Socorro Rodríguez were also executed in the square. In 1819, the crowd welcomed Simón Bolívar on the square, he was accompanied by officials and victorious patriots from the Boyacá Battle, which sealed the liberator quest. The place was called the Square of the Constitution since 1821, until mid century when the current name was imposed. “El Mono de la Pila,” a popular fountain and the favorite meeting place of the locals, remained until 1846, when de square was remodeled and a English-style garden was built. The statue of Bolívar was erected as the first public monument dedicated to the Liberator of five nations, and it was given by his close friend José Ignacio París, who ordered it to Italian sculpture Pietro Tenerani.
In 1960, the square was enameled for celebrating the sesquicentennial of the Independence. All the architectural periods and trends of the city converge in this square: the Museum House of the Independence and the Comuneros House from the Colonial period; the Primate Cathedral and the National Capitol from the nineteenth century; the Cardinal Palace and the Liévano Building, among others from the first half of the twentieth century; and the recently constructed Palace of Justice.